GST 122 Week 8

Referencing/Bibliography
Key words
Citation: A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source usually alphanumeric that is the author,s family name. a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression {e.g. (Babangida, 2015) (in text in the body of the work & out text at the end of the work.)
Reference: Is a method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that have been used by a researcher in a report writing, research, assignment and dissertation. Reference comes to play when there is an in text citation. So if a work is cited in the body it must be written at the end of the work (out-text or end note) footnote appears at the bottom of the page. In other words referencing contains only sources that are cited in the body of the text. Usually listed alphabetically with or without numbers depending on the style.
Bibliography: Bibliography on the other hand, includes all sources consulted for background or further reading. In bibliography all the materials consulted in writing the research paper, whether or not they have actually been cited in the report, are listed. Alphabetically depending on the style of the referencing.
When using books you keep record of
Author/ editors name
Year of publication
Title of book
Edition of the material
Place or city of publication
Name of publisher.
When using Journals you keep record of:
Chief Editor’s name
Title of article
Title of journal
Page number of publication
Volume and number of journal.
URL where you picked the article from if it is from the website
Date you last accessed the article.
Types of reference style

 MLA (Modern Language Association) style
 APA (American Psychological Association) style
 Chicago style
 Harvard style

Example of Harvard
Book: Kumar Ranjit (2014) Research methodology, Los Angeles: SAGE
Journal Article: Glosiene, A., and Manzhukh, Z. (2005). Towards a usability framework for memory institutions. New library world Vol. 106 (7/8), pp 303-319.

Example of APA
Book Umar, B. (2015). Information Organization: Cataloguing and Classification.
Katsina: FUDMA printing press

Journal: Abba, H., Abubakar, S. (2015). Information Representation: Indexing and
Abstracting. Nigerian journal of Library and Information Science, 41(2),
120 – 138
Example of MLA
Journal [1]. Ronning, H., – Systems of control and regulation: Copyright Issues, digital divides and citizens‘ rights, . Critical Arts. 20(1), 20-34, 2006

Book [2] Romițan, C. – Protecția penală a proprietății intelectuale, Editura C.H. Beck,Bucuresti, 2006;

Importance of Referencing/Bibliography/Citation
• Referral purposes Referencing your work enables the reader to consult/trace for themselves the same materials that you used
• Not all sources are good or right — your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else’s bad ideas
• Citing sources shows the amount of research you’ve done
• Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.
• To avoid plagiarism, a form of academic theft.
• Referencing your work correctly ensures that you give appropriate credit to the sources and authors that you have used to complete your assignment.
• Referencing the sources that you have used for your assignment demonstrates that you have undertaken wide-ranging research in order to create your work.
• To demonstrate the depth of your research.
• To abide by the university‘s policy
• It shows the reader that you can find and use sources to create a solid argument
• It shows the reader how your argument relates to the big picture

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